Cartagena de Indias (COL)
This was the most important city and port of the viceroyalty of New Granada and one of the best fortified enclaves in the Caribbean. It belonged to the Spanish crown for more than 275 years, until 1811. The first Spaniard to arrive in what is now Cartagena de Indias was Rodrigo de Bastidas, who gave it the name of Golfo de Barú, which was later changed to Bahía de Cartagena, because of its resemblance to Cartagena de Levante in Spain.
The city was founded on June 1, 1533 by Pedro de Heredia and the soldiers that accompanied him, and it reached great prosperity thanks to the export of gold, emeralds and other riches. It also served as a commercial port for ships traveling from Peru to Cuba and then to Spain.
After being attacked several times, King Philip II ordered its fortification. Today, it is considered one of the most complete fortifications in South America, whose construction involved some of the most famous engineers of the time. It reached its heyday with the creation of the viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717.